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Outside evidence, such as dating of two or more stages in the development, may be needed to determine which is the first and which the last member of the series.There are several types of seriation: frequency seriation, contextual seriation, evolutionary seriation, and similarity / stylistic seriation -- based on different changes. He was one of the small group of scholars whose work laid the basis of archaeology as a scientific discipline.His first work was in preparing a typological seriation of potsherds from Zuñi sites of the American southwest, and his work, together with that of Kidder and Nelson in the same area, showed how archaeological methods could reveal time depth and cultural change in North America.Unless tied to historical records, dating by archaeological methods can only be relative -- such as stratigraphy, typology, , fluorine and nitrogen test, and radiometric assay.Other methods include: coin dating, seriation, and amino-acid racemization.Seriation refers to the chronological ordering of artifacts of a particular class—but of different styles.The best artifacts are those whose styles changed at a relatively rapid rate and that are found in contexts that can be independently dated using chronometric dating.
The order produced is theoretically chronological, but will need archaeological assessment.TYPOLOGY DATING In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics. Artefacts often have a distinctive style or design, which developed over a period of time.In archaeology, the gradual changes in motifs were exploited systematically as a dating method by researchers from Montelius onwards.From 1921, Kroeber applied the same techniques to 's Peruvian collections.He worked out a scheme for Peruvian archaeology which formed the basis of all studies of the subject for the next 20 years.